Oliver Cromwell appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland.
First awards of the Victoria Cross in London at Hyde Park by Queen Victoria.....1st V.C. issued was to an Irishman, C.D. Lucas, Mate Royal Navy later Rear Admiral, from Drumargole, Co. Armagh.
* Surgeon General William Manley, Irishman, only person to receive the V.C. (New Zeland, 1864) and the Iron Cross (Franco- Prussian War 1870-71)*