Congrats to Emmet and the lads

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Congrats to Emmet and the lads

Postby museumtom on Sun Apr 18, 2010 8:02 am

We headed down to Dungarvan for a quick visit to the display put on by Emmet and the lads in the Fort. What a great setting, right beside the harbour, sun shining, free grub and a great display from Emmet and the lads. I had to leave a bit early but it was really only starting at that time and the place was nearly full at that stage. It seems to be the most successful display put on there to date.
Last edited by museumtom on Wed Jun 23, 2010 4:49 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Postby museumtom on Sun Apr 18, 2010 8:03 am

William Ferguson Menelaws ( 2nd Bn. Seaforth Highlanders ) and Mary Menelaws of 7, Redmond St, Enniscorthy, Co. Wexford. Previously wounded at Ypres, Oct, 1914. From an article in the Enniscorthy Guardian for your consideration; The friends of Sergt Menelans( sic ), R. I. R., a native of Ross Road, Enniscorthy have received the sad tidings of the young soldiers death which took place last week.
He was one of a force that were attacked by the german poisonous gas, which has wrought such havoc amongst the British and French troops. He succumbed to its effects after about two days illness. Sergt Menelans, who was only 20 years of age, had just received his promotion, and was a most promising and dashing soldier. He was stepson to Mr James Doherty, Ross Road, one of the staff of the D. and S. E. Railway, Enniscorthy. Much sympathy is felt with Mrs Doherty and family on the death of her son in such cruel circumstances. From a later article in the Enniscorthy Guardian; With reference to the death of Sergeant Menelaus( sic ), who was reported to have died from gas poisoning, it is now officially announced that the immediate cause of death was wounds in the head from a bursting shell.
From An article in the People; Corporal William Menelaus, Ross Road, Enniscorthy writing to his mother this week, dates his letter from the Military Hospital, York, England, and states that he is suffering from a bullet wound in the head, just over the right temple, so that he must have had a very narrow escape from death. He received his wound in the battle of La Bassee going into action as a Lance Corporal and receiving promotion to full Corporal on the field of battle. Corporal Menelaus mentions that Private Patrick Marsh of the same regiment (Royal Irish) a native of Duffrey Gate, Enniscorthy, is also in hospital suffering from a bullet wound in the leg, the missile having passed through the fleshy part of his thigh. Those two young soldiers left another Enniscorthy man, Private Owen Dwyer, The Shannon, in the firing line, but he was then safe and unwounded. Corporal Menelaus hopes to get a few days furlough before returning to the front. Private Dan Kennedy, wounded at Mons arrived home in Enniscorthy on Thursday.
From another article in a Wexford newspaper; Wm Minelaws( sic ), a stepson of James Doherty, an Enniscorthy Railway employee, living on the Ross Road, and who was serving in the Royal Irish, has died during the week as the result of gas poisoning, at the front. The deceased, who was quiet a young fellow, had been through all the terrible engagements at Mons, after which he was allowed home for a short furlough. He was again sent to the front, and now comes the news of his death.

Private Patrick Howard. C Company, Royal Irish Regiment, writing from the front to his step-mother, Mrs Canavan, Thomas Street, Gorey, states-; “ We are having a big battle and we gained the day. The Germans had gas and turpentine fumes, and lost very heavily.
We made a big capture of men and guns. It is a pity that all the Gorey boys are not here. There was only myself and J Walker in it. Our Captain got wounded. I am writing this in the trenches under heavy shell fire. I am sending you the telegram that the Commander-in-Chief sent to our Adjutant on our great victory and about the R. I. Regiment and the gallant stand they made. Get the letter published in the newspapers”. Copy message received by Adjutant, Royal Irish, from Commander-in-Chief, dated April; -“Please convey my congratulations to the 12th Brigade on their gallant and brilliant repilse of the enemy last night in spite of of gas fumes and poisoned shells, and I think the artillery which supported them also deserve great praise. ”
From an article in the Enniscorthy Guardian, June 1915; …. . a comrade, John Walker, Clonattin-Road, Gorey, who is attached to the same Battalion, and who was in the trenches with him at the time, became affected with gas poisoning, and is now in an hospital in Essex recovering rapidly. He is expected home on a brief holiday in the course of a week or so.

"The Second Battle of Ypres commenced in April 1915 when the Germans released poison gas against the Allied lines north of the city, this being the first time that the deadly weapon had been used in the war. The fleeing battle-weary troops were replaced by the fresh 1st Canadian Division who steadfastly resisted a second gas attack and stood their ground. However the force of the first attack had seriously indented the Allied-held Ypres Salient and it was necessary for the British to shorten their lines of defence by withdrawing."

From an article written in 2005 by his daughter Patricia Sherlock-Beard for the BBC.
‘My father was a motorcycle policeman in the Metropolitan Police at that time and I can remember that there was a poison gas scare in the area when he was called out to help the local police forces. My mother and I together with some neighbours sat in our gas masks for three and one half hours until my father came home and said that the scare had been caused by a petrol spillage in the road. It seemed that the siren was always sounding, and one day, on my way to school, a Stuka dive bomber appeared out of the sky and machine-gunned us as we went along the road. After this, my father deicded it would be better for my mother and I to move in with my grandfather and grandmother in Seaford, Sussex and we went to stay there in early 1940. My father… although being in a reserved occupation, decided that he wanted to do something more active to help with the War effort and he joined the Royal Air Force as a volunteer reservist, against my mother's wishes.
He was then 31 years old, so older than most of those who were joining up. He was sent for training to Hamilton, Canada and was there for nine months. On his return he joined Coastal Command as a Sergeant Observer/Navigator and carried out several sorties. However, during a sortie in bad weather over the Irish Sea in 1942 his plane ended up in the sea and he was killed. Only the pilot and my father's bodies were found by local Irish fishermen and they were buried in a military grave in Cork Cemetary. The other members of the crew were never found.
This news really devastated my mother and I was almost inconsolable - my father having always meant so much to me and I was the only child. I don't really think my mother quite understood how I felt, or perhaps she thought, as a child of eight, I would probably get over his loss before she did. I have always missed him and found it difficult to grow up without his gentle guidance’.
in 1943, my mother's brother who was in the Royal Navy, having survived being torpedoed and spending 28 days in an open lifeboat with 30 others, was killed in a motor-cycle accident so our last serving family member, my uncle by marriage to my aunt, who was also in the Royal Navy, in HMS Erebus was the only person who returned at the end of the War.

Mr Dear Mrs Downey—I hope you have not been thinking that I am among the roll of dead or wounded heroes. Thank God I am neither so far, and trust to get through in as good a state of health as I am enjoying at present. Four months to-day we left ou camp on the north-east coast of England, and doing a sort of non-stop journey per mare et tarram we were deposited at Hazlebrouke, about 10 miles west of the Belgian border. We trekked staright on from the train to Casetro, about 7 miles further to the east, and were pretty glad to stretch level after 4 days of continuous travelling. But, alas! for thoughts of comfort. The Germans gave their great exhibition of how to fight with Chlorine gas, with the effect that some of the French troops holding the line to the north of Ypres gave way, the Canadians were pushed in, and to their infinite credit they held the breach for some days till the line was straightened out, and the German troops who had broken through were routed and forced back again beyond the Ypres Canal. This started on 23rd April, and on that calm spring afternoon we were told to strip camp and push on towards Ypres as fast as our legs could carry us. The infantry of our division was pushed right on to the Canadians line and straight away were engaged in the “2nd” battle of Ypres. They lost heavily, but never flinched from gun, rifle or gas attack, and it certainly was a most severe baptism of fire. As far as I know no troops but our Division have ever been sent straight from England bang into the firing line. It was impossible to send more guns forward with the mass of troops, transport and general Hell from shell fire, etc. We occupied the supporting line. I went right forward with the small arm section of my ammunition column, and had to supply ammunition for the trenches, taking it through Ypres which was pretty well like a burning volcano. Dead horses and men lying in……….. One shell passed through a wall, taking in its flight part of the clothing of a nun. She was pinned to the wall, and the force of the explosion had driven her eyes out of the sockets. I never thought I could face some of the hourly sights to be seen, but fortunately one gets accustomed to it quickly. We retired towards the west on 4th May …..and moved so far forward on the 10th, moving further on the 14th. On the 27th we came through Poperinghe again, and on the following night went into action north of Ypres, relieving another Brigade of artillery. There was some pretty heavy fighting during our occupation of the line, and not only was the actual front intensely dangerous but the whole area in rear of the fighting line was swept continually both day and night by shell fire. In the course of my duties from the column to the firing line I had several instances of “near things” but fortunately have been untouched up to now. The ground I occupied there had been shelled up to the day before I arrived, and two days after I left it was well swept away by gun fire, so I certainly was in luck. We remained in action till the 7th of June when we came out and retired to Brechepe to rest and refit. On the 14th we were ordered forward again to relieve a Brigade of Belgian artillery on the canal between Boesinghe and Ypres and remained in action till 21st when we came out of action and moved during the night to Neuve Eglise further south, coming into action along the Neuve Eglise, Mont Kanmel ridge. The country in this part of the world was a great improvement on our late quarters, and the signs of a fine harvest were evident everywhere. The country is undulating, plenty of wood, hills, and valleys, and a real good green look about the place. We were in action here till the 16th July and left on that night for further down the line, coming into action at dawn next morning, and are still plugging away. Belgium, or rather what I have seen of it, is in a pitiable condition. Farmhouses, churches, villages battered to bits; the ground holed and churned up with trenches, shell holes, etc, and the place generally laid waste. The fire of the German artillery is wonderfully accurate. On one occasion while with one of our batteries near Neuve Eglise a couple of German guns commenced shelling a cross road about 40 yards from us…..troops out who ran up the road, but before they could reach cover they had a shell quick into them. They made for a wood alongside the road, but a couple of shells were fired into the wood and caught a few more. The second last shell burst in a hedge 20 yards from where I was sitting in front of a Dug-out “getting my hair cut,” and the last shell burst in the thatch of a cottage 50 yards in front of me. The explosion took place outside the house, but the body of the shell passed through a partition wall into the store house, and out into the back premises. That little episode cost us four killed—one poor man had his head blown off---and 16 wounded. We buried the men in the opening, a Catholic chaplain attending the burial of one of thm. We unfortunately had 2 men and 2 horses blown to bits close to the same place one day. The day I left that rather unhealthy spot I witnessed the destruction of Neuve Eglise. The Germans put “crumps” into the village for some days before but the only damage to the church was one shell which passed clean through the spire. However on this particular day they got the range accurately, and as I left the church was a mass of flame which lit up the whole district. Some three miles from there I came across the Community of Sisters of Charity, nuns who tend some hospitals and schools kneeling on a ditch with their faces turned towards the burning church reciting the rosary. One great consolation to Catholic soldiers is the facility for hearing Mass. In all the villages which have not been ruined Masses are always said daily and the R.C. chaplains are always able to obtain the use of them for soldiers Masses. In othet places a barn, etc., has to serve. One Sunday morning I served Mass near Ypres at the back of the line while a furious cannonade was in progress. The old barn we occupied fairly shook from the concussion of the bursting shells. The altar consisted of Huntly and Palmer biscuit boxes and bully beef cases. About 400 of all ranks and regiments received absolution during Mass and Communion, and many of the men had come straight out of the trenches, mud from head to foot, unwashed, unshaved………………

In the Trenches.
No 783, Private John Nolan.
No 9 Platoon, “C” Company.
2nd Welsh Regiment, B.E.F.
“Somewhere in France”
To the Editor of the “Waterford News.”
Sir—Will you kindly allow me space in your valuable paper to give the readers of the “Waterford News” some idea of how the troops out here are getting on, and to try to let the young men of place know that they can perform a great service to their country by joining the Army and helping to crush German militarism once and for all; also to avenge all the young men of Ireland murdered by the atrocious methods of the Huns.
I have been out here since October, and have seen enough during that time to wish every German in H—l or as near there as possible, and I have no doubt that all our boys out here are of the same opinion, though I know that a good many are philanthropists.
When I came out first, I joined by Battalion at the world-famed town of Ypres---that place which can never be forgotten by anyone who took an active part there, for there was more blood spilt there during the war than would fill the Suir for a quarter of a mile. The Kaiser gave the order to break through at all costs, even if it cost the three hundred and fifty thousand men supposed to be there. I don’t know if they were, but I do know that they outnumbered us in the proportion of five or six to one.
Well, to give the Germans their due, they did try to get through, and tried hard; but all their efforts were frustrated by the doggedness of our troops in refusing to leave the trenches. Even after they had bombarded us for hours at a time with shells of every calibre and description, and razed our trenches on a level with the earth, we kept digging ourselves deeper and refused to quit.
We stuck to our trenches, but at what a cost!. We went into action with one thousand and came out with one hundred and seventy nine.
The winter came along then and brought with it its attendant displeasures, rain, hail, snow and bitter cold all the time. We often gave forty-eight hours in the trenches with icy cold water up to our knees—no wonder so many got invalided with frost bite and other sickness. But the Germans gave us great quiet till about January, when they tried to break through against, in a different place, but with the same result. Then, when they saw they could not beat Tommy by fair means, they tried murder with asphyxiating gasses, and how well they succeeded—for a time at least---the hospitals in England and Flanders will testify; but it was only for a time, for we got the means to make their gas useless. When they found the gas was a failure they tried burning liquid, and then advanced under its cover, and gained some trenches, but they were not long in them wwhen they were evicted and had to give some of their own trenches as compensation for damage done. These and several more devilish devices they have tried to no purpose, and now they find themselves confronted by an enemy at least numerically, equipped with a better artillery, and well prepared in every way, and still the Kaiser has the effrontery to say he will be in Calais before October. Alas! What hopes. They will melt in the air like all his former schemes. My time is limited, so I must conclude by wishing your paper every success.—I remain, yours, etc.
J. Nolan.
P.S.—I receive your paper every week and hand it over to the boys of the Munsters who are in our brigade, and I can tell you they scramble to get it.—J.N.

Waterford Soldier’s Experience.
After spending about eight months in France, Private Charles O’Rourke, of the R.A.M.C., is now home in Waterford on a short leave, and he has brought back with him a most interesting collection of souvenirs.
Private O’Rourke, who is a young man of fine physique, spent 14 months as an attendant at the Waterford District Lunatic Asylum, and his training there laid a fitting foundation for the work in which he is now engaged.
On the 10th February last he joined the R.A.M.C. at Waterford, and two months later—on the 10th April to be exact—he was on his way to France, having qualified for his work in that short space of time notwithstanding that he had had no previous military experience. On arrival in France his draft were sent up close to the firing line with the 21st Field Ambulance Unit, and his first taste of real warfare was at Poperinghe outside Ypres. They reached this place at about 12,30 on a spring morning, and the Germans were shelling the British front very heavily at the time. On the way up they met about 50 German prisoners being brought in, and this was their first sight of Germans on French soil. They spent a few weeks in a casualty clearing station, and were then sent to the trenches in twos and threes. From this onward they had a busy and trying time, tending the wounded, and, in the course of his duties Private O’Rourke came into touch with many Waterfordmen who are doing their bit in the Great War. One soldier from Urbs Intacta whom he met was a Private Kelly. Kelly was well known in the city, and used to sell ballads in the streets. He was wounded on the front where Private O’Rourke was engaged, and the latter attended to his injuries……..which fastened over the mouth and nose by means of a piece of elastic. This is the pattern which was received in April last after the Canadians were gassed at Ypres. It was of little or no value. The other is one of those issued by the War Office. It is a more elaborate and more effective type, and covers the whole head and face.
Needless to say, Orivate O’Rourke has been witness to some gruesome spectacles. He has attended men wounded in every conceivable way—men smashed up and only partly alive. Outside one of the principal casualty clearing stations is a burial ground dotted over with thousands of white crosses, and here are interred the remains of hundreds of Irishmen. Only last year this plot of ground formed part of a hay meadow. Now it is the burial ground for the brave troops who have given their lives in the War.
“The Waterford News,” he said, was a welcome arrival, a copy of our paper reaching him every week. After reading it he passed it round to any on his comrades who belonged to Waterford or district.
Private O’Rourke tells us that men are well catered for in the way of food at th front. Their principal articles of diet are bully beef, biscuits and bread, though the supply of the latter is limited. They also get a tot of rum daily. O’Rourke was quite close to Mr Redmond when he was out at the front, and also saw the King on the occasion of his visit. He speaks highly of the work of the ladies in the Y.M.C.A. hutments and of the arrangements made for London for looking after the comfort of troops returning from the trenches. At Victoria there is always a plentiful supply of coffee and cake for the men home from the trenches, and there are special police in waiting to conduct them to their destinations, if they so desire. They can travel around London free of charge, their uniform being a pass on all railways, trams, etc.
Mr O’Rourke was the first of the attendants at the Waterford Asylum to volunteer and his example has since been followed by six others. He is going back to the front in a day or two. We wish him every success and a safe return.

January, 1916.
Mr L Power, 18 Passage Road, has been informed that his brother, Private Michael Power, R.F.A., was “gassed” in action in France on December 19th. He is at present in hospital in Nottingham, whence he writes to his brother;--“I am getting on well. I am not allowed out of bed yet. It seems like Heaven to be nice and clean. I am sorry to say the Germans caught us napping on that Sunday (December 19th). They used that sweet-smelling gas. It was not very sweet. When you get a mouthful you are down like a wet sack. I lay twelve hours unconscious, until picked up by the R.A.M.C., wet through. It was raining all the time. You ask about relics. I have lost everything. We have a hard nut to crack. The only way we will win the war is with money—starve them out, and goodness knows when that will be.”

The wind of the bullet.
The war has revived the problem as to whether the displacement of air produced by the passage of a projectile can cause serious injuries without the man being touched. The famous surgeon Larrey, in a memoir presented to the Siciete de Chirurgie, showed that all that had been said about the phenomenon of men being either wounded or killed without being hit, was based on a false interpretation. In spite of Larrey’s scepticism the fact that soldiers have been made deaf, by the bursting of a shell near them, and that one French soldier was found in a field dead, his lungs destroyed, though no splinters of the shell had touched him, has once more drawn attention to the question.
Professor Symonds, consulting surgeon at Guy’s Hospital, says as far as he knew no information had reached this country showing that soldiers had actually been killed without having being struck by bullets. It was a fact, however, that the difference between the shells of today and those used in former years---which difference was due to greater speed and greater power of the explosive element—had resulted in men being knocked out. Shells bursting in the near vicinity of soldiers produced a tremendous explosive effect resulting in some cases to the men suffering concussion of the brain or spine. In other cases the soldiers suffered from a violent headache, and deafness was also caused. He cited a case where a soldier was walking on one side of the road and a shell burst on the other. He was knocked down, and, was insensible for several days. Drawing from experience, the Professor added (; We have instances where a bullet has traversed the skin, and caused a burning wound an inch long. While men are knocked out through shells bursting near them, I have had no cases of men whose wounds were caused by the wind of the bullet.

King’s County letter from the front.
The following graphic descriptions of his experiences and observations is contained in a letter to his brother, the Rev. Thomas Meagher, R. C. C., Killaloe, from Dr. Meagher, lately Surgeon of the King’s County Infirmary, Tullamore and who recently gave up his civil appointment for service with the R. A. M. C. at the seat of war. We are sure it will be perused with interest by the public, but by none more so than by the numerous friends of himself and his brother, Dr. Coroner Meagher, and the rev. gentleman who was formerly R. C. C. in Birr and who thoughtfully placed it at our disposal for the readers of the “King’s County Chronicle, ”
March 12th, 1915.
“…. . I am precluded by the Censor from naming my exact location. My address is 22nd Field Ambulance, 7th Division, British Expeditionary Force, France. Anyhow I am right in the thick of the row. I am in charge of 36 men—stretcher bearers, and located here in a wayside in some seven or eight hundred yards behind our trenches. We take over the wounded every night---picking them up at a fixed point immediately behind our trenches. This we do at dusk when there is only casual sniping. At present we are bombarding the German trenches, some 400 guns being engaged in this work. This inn where I now write from is right in the middle of a battery of 5 guns---none more than about 500 yards away. As you may imagine, the din is absolutely indescribable. Of course this fire attracts the German attentions to us, which they send in the shape of shells. We had a very lively time here yesterday, almost shelling us out of house and home. There are three fine houses at three corners—we occupy one. The house across the way---about 15 yards—had two shells sent into it yesterday. Looking from the window on my own billet I saw smoke arising for some time from the house where it had been struck. As it did not cease smoking, and thinking it a pity to see the whole place ruined by fire. I ran across to see the extent of the mischief. I had just entered the yard when bang went another shell right on the roof directly over my head. The debris showered all around me. You can guess I did not further trouble about the fire…
In all we had about dozen shells within almost as many yards of us yesterday. Yet not one of us got a scratch. The indifference men display is astonishing. Somehow the faculty of anticipation died here after a few engagements. No man thinks of what the next moment may bring him. He lives and jokes for the moment. Otherwise, of course, life would be intolerable. We live in the best style—good food, good beds, no hardships, and after all, no great danger. Anyhow we are making progress here. It will be slow, but I think there can be no doubt about the issue. We cannot hope for any respite now---anyone at present surviving—until the end. The Allies have now begun to put the pressure on, to continue with unrelenting crescendo until the Germans go under. So I expect to be well employed and continuously so for months. The poor country shows its gaping wounds like the dead Caesar pleading for revenge. You see old women, that have see and known God only knows what outrages, strolling deserted homes, woe-begone, stupefied, mumbling and shaking the head, the prettiest villages laid in ruins, churches levelled, the whole country maimed and bleeding. If that is the case here what must it be in Belgium. I cannot give you any connected or continuous description of things under present conditions the noise, turmoil, and interruptions make that impossible. I sleep at present in my everyday clothes, booted, and helmeted, ready for the fray. It is gloriously exciting, magnificent, and when you see the slain that die—and it is miserable.
Tim. ”

Wounds in War.
Past and Present.
Surgeon-General Sit Anthony Bowlby, Consulting Surgeon to the Expeditionary Force in France, delivering the 34th annual Bradshaw lecture before the Royal College of Surgeons, chose for his subject “Wounds of War.” He contrasted the fields of war in South Africa and in France, pointing out that in the former we had to fight in a very thinly inhabited country, for the most part quite uncultivated, with a soil dry and sandy, and uncontaminated by manure. The rainfall was slight, cloudy days were few, and a hot sun with fresh breezes or strong winds desiccated the soil and prevented the growth of any luxuriant vegetation. The consequence was that in the absence of decaying vegetable and animal matter the soil was almost entirely free from all progenic organisms. At the present seat of war the conditions were reversed. The country was thickly populated; it supported many cattle and pigs; the soil was a rich loam, and was more heavily manured than almost any other land. Rainfall was copious; cloudy days were numerous; and in many months sunshine was almost absent for long periods. In France and Flanders, then, every form of micro-organism flourished, and even in soil taken from a considerable depth below the surface the spore-bearing pathogenic organisms abounded.
Range and Velocity.
The lecturer next showed that the wounds of the South African war differed in almost every way from the severe injuries of the present campaign. The ogival bullet of that day produced mush less smashing and rending than did the pointed bullet now in use, and while in this war the majority of the wounds were inflicted at close range by a missile travelling and the height of its velocity, in South Africa they were more often due to bullets fired at a distance of half a mile or more. In addition to this, shell wounds amongst the British troops were extremely rare in the South African campaign, while in this war they had been perhaps quite as numerous as those caused by bullets. Again, owing to his partially subterranean life, the soldier in the present war was usually covered thickly with mud or dust at the time when he was wounded, while his wound was not infrequently dressed by his muddy and dusty comrades before he could be treated by the regimental medical officer in the dug-out. The lecturer next pointed out that the rifle bullet of British, German, and French alike differed from all the bullets of the Boer War period. The point of the present bullet was like that of a sharpened lead pencil, and the consequence was that the balance was altered, and the bullet was easily caused to turn completely over on its long axis and so enter the body sideways or base first. Wounds caused by shrapnel bullets were not as extensive as the worst of those caused by the pointed rifle bullet, but shell fragments, being rough and jagged, tore away parts of the clothing and carried the latter into the extreme depths of the wound. The various forms of bombs and grenades were specially liable to cause multiple wounds, for they generally wounded by bursting close to the patient.
Bombs and Artillery.
The wounds of this war, therefore, were quite unlike those of previous wars, because they had been caused by new and different missiles, and it was further to be noted that the proportion of wounds by rifle bullets compared with wounds caused by shells or bombs was certainly much less than in previous wars. Never before had such extensive use been made of artillery and bombs, nor had armies ever-previously faced each other over fronts of hundreds of miles at a distance of a few yards. In conclusion, Sir Anthony Bowlby paid a high tribute to the work of the younger surgeons, and declared his conviction that the future of the British surgery was in safe keeping, for many of the best brains and hands which guided its course were yet strong.

Telephoning for Bullets
A number of distinguished surgeons gave the Medical Society of London an account of some of the latest devices in X-ray surgery. Dr J.M.Davidson, in a demonstration of his telephone probe described how cheaply his telephone was made, and showed, with the aid of a leg of meat, how by holding the receiver to the ear, inserting the probe into the tissue, the moment the probe encountered even a particle of metal a distinct sound was telephoned.. This had been successfully employed in the cae of men returned wounded, the operations being performed with the least possible disturbance of the tissue.

Afraid of being Buried Alive.
Dr Arthur Wigelsworth Orwin, of Weymouth-street, Portland-place, London, who died on February 20, directed that his executors to take all necessary steps to ascertain that he was in fact dead, and not in any other state having the resemblance of death, and until this was ascertained his nose and mouth were not to be covered, nor his body to be confined in any shell or coffin. Also that on his apparent death his body should be kept in a well-warmed bed for 36 hours, and then placed in a warm room with the windows partially opened, and watched for 12 days and nights or until definite signs of decomposition have set in. During this period “The Signs and Proof of Death” are to be applied, and during this period also a bell easily audible within and without the room is to be attached to the wrist. When decomposition has set in a surgeon is to completely sever the spinal cord, high up in the body. The vslue of his property is sworn at £93,512, and he bequeathed about £2,000 for charitable purposes.

Care of Soldiers Feet.
A lecture on “Soldiers Feet and How to Protect them” was delivered at the Institute of Hygene by A.H. Tubby, Surgeon Major R.A.M.C. He said boots should be fitted after a march, when the feet were fatigued and swollen and should be fitted over the thickest socks. Recruits should soften boots before wearing and soak them well inside and out with crude castor oil, afterwards keeping the uppers supple by the constant use of oil or dubbin. Socks worn on the march should be washed and dried for the next day’s work and another pair put on, they should never be put on dirty. An excellent preventive of blisters and sores was to wear a pair of thin socks under thick woollen stockings, as the friction then came not between the foot and the stocking and the foot never became sore. If soldiers in the trenches could have the opportunity of removing their foot gear and putties for a quarter of an hour twice daily there was no doubt that the so-called frostbite cases would diminish in number.

…….. has received a letter, dated 21st September, written in pncil, from her son, who is a surgeon serving in France with the 14th Ambulance, 5th Division, of the British Expeditionary Force. Having applied for permission to make extracts, Mrs Kennedy reluctantly complied from motives which can easily be appreciated;--
I am about half a mile from Jurl, in a farmhouse, like Mrs Hough’s, and am very comfortable; I am here eight days. The weather is cold and wet and hard on the troops. The Germans have blown up the bridge crossing the river and then entrenched on the other side. However, we expect to hunt them out any moment. The shell fire has ceased here now, but it was awful the first four days, bursting all round us; one actually hit the roof of our house. I think it will be a long war, but the Germans are bound to lose. We have killed close on half a million already, but they are very numerous and we must keep at them. I hope you will get this.
I hear the shells bursting outside as I write, but we are quite “climatized” to shell fire. The Germans ate on one side and we are on the other side of the river. I cannot name places, but we hope to drive them into Germany soon. I am with an advanced dressing station about 500 yards from the enemy’s trenches. I see their fire every night and day. At times everything is very quiet, and then there is an outbreak of fire which startles us for s few moments, but it is lovely to see the shells burst round the aeroplane. The airmen are very brave, and do great work. Send me some newspapers as we don’t know anything here; it is like a desert, the whole country being devastated. No cattle, no sheep, “no-nothing”, only homeless dogs and cats, and riderless horses whose jockeys have been shot. I could get any amount of German swords, helmets, &c., but cannot send them home. I ride a captured horse with German saddle.
October 1st.
The weather is sunny during the day but foggy and very cold at night. We have been served out with fresh meat for the first two days. We are living under favourable conditions just now, but under the continual strain of imagining that we may be blown to atoms at any moment. I have this minute seen a large piece of shell taken from the arm of a man who was hit a mile from here. Think our Red Cross flag must have saved us. We have the Germans nearly surrounded. We, the 5th Division, are on one side of the Aisne at Ropreux, about three miles from Soissons, the Germans being on the other side. I hear a pom-pom gun firing at an aeroplane; now all kinds of guns are firing at it. We see so many fo them that they have become as familiar as bikes. Turning to another phase of the situation, this is a great place for partridge, pheasants and rabbits, but I have no suitable gun to shoot them.
Arthur P Kennedy.
( Surgeon Kennedy is the fourth son of the late lamented Mr Richard B Kennedy, Anagh, and it will be remembered that some time ago he was for a short period Medical Officer of Silvermines Dispensary District of the Nenagh Union, and afterwards changed to a very lucrative insurance appointment in Clonmel. His enthusiasm at the first sign of war induced him to throw it up and bravely offer his service like the genuine Irishman he is. His hosts of friends wish him success and a safe return.—Ed)

Gallant Surgeon’s Adventures in the Belgium and the Dardanelles.
How the Dublin’s Landed.
Since the outbreak of the war Sergeant Kelly, son of Mrs Kelly, the Abbey, Athy, has had a most exciting career. On being attached to the Royal Naval Division he took part in the defence of Autwerp and was one of the few officers who escaped capture by the advancing Germans. Next he proceeded to the Dardanelles, where his heroism and bravery for three days, on board the River Clyde won him the D.S.O. The River Clyde was the transport which the British ran ashore with the Munster Fusiliers and Dublin Fusiliers in order to gain a landing. The men left the transport for small boats, and were towed ashore all the time, being subject to a fierce Turkish fire. As a result thousands were killed and drowned. Surgeon Kelly was the only medical man on board, and although wounded himself he attended to the sufferings for three days until relief came. The landing at this beach was the most dangerous in the Gallipoli gamble, and as yet the official reports do not give the credit to the Irish Regiments which their valour gained for them on that memorable day last April. However, most of the officers were killed, and the records were then lost. The V.C. was awarded to a midshipman named Drury ( Later won the V.C. where his name was spelled Drewry, Author) for his daring in swimming ashore to try and moor some of the barges that had broken away. At the time we published the first account of the landing from the River Clyde from the pen of Surgeon Kelly, in which he vividly portrayed the trials of those who participated in that terrible enterprise. When the Allies secured a firm hold on the Peninsula, Surgeon Kelly was attached to various H.M.warships until the evacuation in December.
In the course of a letter just received in Athy, he says;”The evacuation at Suvla and Ariza was brilliantly carried out. All went with a bang, and the enemy must have felt pretty sick when they found we had flown. Of course Leman Von Saunders against us with an army four or five times the size of ours from the very beginning, may claim a moral victory. The weather now continues to remain like summer at home, since we survived the terrible days of November and early days of December. I have been swimming at sea several times since I last wrote and did not find the water cold. We continue hunting submarines day and night. At times it becomes monotonous, and one wishes for a peaceful home again far from war. Of course I want to see it out to the bitter end because it is my duty to do so. I have a good deal of excitements in my life at present, combined with adventures and that keeps one going. As regards what goes on in the outside world, well, I fear we are back numbers altogether. We depend on a paper for news, and then it is always three weeks old at least. Nowadays we wonder if there is conscription at home, but of course do not know. Any way there ought to be if there is not. Some fine day this war will end, and there will be reunions such as the world has never known before. If I get out of this alive I really think I will have to give a dinner in the Hotel in Athy as a sort of reunion. None of us will be fit for work for months after this war ends and many a shell and bullet must pass each and every one of us before peace is declared. But in the interval, the longing for home is acutely intense.
In a subsequent letter from a certain part where his ship was refitting after the evacuation, Surgeon Kelly wrote;--I have therefore, lived through the most tragic chapter of British history. The commencement was so glorious, the continuance so disastrous, and the ending sudden and most dramatic. The Turks, of course, claim to have driven us into the sea, and state that they hold the beaches. Rather amusing, is it not? The Continent is resplendent with uniforms. War news is nothing very much now, and it’s heaven to get away for a day or two from the Dardanelles. God knows where the next campaign will be. After 11 months campaigning we are all feeling the terrible reaction now. When we first arrived here we felt so out of place, coming back to civilisation, that it was quite ludicrous. Every one of us was nervy, and the traffic in the streets bewildering. I cannot conceive myself venturing to cross the streets of Picadilly, Belgium, Servia, Montenegrin have gone for the present. Only the great nations have survived.

Modern Bullet Wounds.
In connection with bullet wounds inflicted during the war those has been more or less newspaper accusation, both on one side and the other, of the use of bullets of the “expanding” or “soft-nosed” variety. The accusation is, it says the “Hospital,” based generally on the extent of the damage inflicted by a bullet on the soft tissue, and particularly perhaps on the large size and ragged character of the wound of exit.
The question to its surgical interest, is of international importance, seeing that the use of this type of bullet is forbidden by the laws of civilised warfare. In this respect it is essential to note what Colonel Markins has recently written in the “Lancet.” His statement, in brief, is that in certain circumstance the modern pointed bullet may wound the soft parts more severely than has ever been noted in the case of expanding or soft-nosed bullets. With a small ordinary-looking aperture of entry, the exit wound may be very large, may be oval or stellate in shape, and may show a protruding mass of torn muscles and other soft tissues; all these characters, be noted being possible without any evidence that part of the damage is due to fragments of bone produced by fracture or splintering caused by the bullet. It is therefore easy to understand that an untrained observer, face to face with such injuries, may honestly come to the conclusion that they undoubtedly mean the use by the enemy of explosive or “dum-dum” bullets.

Soldiers welcome remedy.
German newspapers announce a discovery of great interest to troops on active service. It is no less simple means of ridding the body of lice. Exhaustive experiments have been made by Dr. Machold, medical officer of one of the German prisoners comps, as he reports, have been attended with great success. The remedy consists of cyclohexanon, and the directions for its use are very simple. The sufferer strips, and has his whole body and all his clothes, together with his bedclothes and coverlet dusted with the powder. He then put his clothes in bed with himself, wraps a counterpane or outer covering tightly round, and remains for five hours which Cr Machold’s subjects usually went to sleep. The remedy can also sprayed on in liquid form. Whichever method is employed, after five hours not only the living louse, but every nit or egg has been killed.
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Full Name: Tom Burnell
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Re: Congrats to Emmet and the lads

Postby bannerman on Sun Apr 18, 2010 11:35 am

Great work Tom - theres some great information there - do you ever sleep?

"Is doigh linn gur mor iad na daoine mora mar atamuid fein ar ar nglunaibh. - Eirimis!!!"
Jim Larkin 1913
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Full Name: Padraig O Ruairc
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Re: Congrats to Emmet and the lads

Postby museumtom on Sun Apr 18, 2010 12:56 pm

Hello Padraig.
Nope, never sleep, only in the Curragh, Duncannon and Salute after copious amounts of alcohol with good friends and there are always plenty of them around. Roll on the summer.
Kind regards.
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